Is the universe fine-tuned for human existence? If so, how do we know it and is such design intentional?
One definition of the anthropic principle states that humanity’s existence places severe constraints on the physical constants and structure and history of the whole cosmos, and specifically on the Milky Way Galaxy, the solar system, Earth, and Earth’s early life.1 Another definition is that the presence of intelligent observers (beings capable of measuring astronomical bodies and phenomena) requires that multiple characteristics of the universe and the laws of physics fit within certain narrowly limited fine-tuned ranges.
Fine-Tuning and the Fine-Tuner
Fine-tuning requires a shaping source. The greater the degree and pervasiveness of fine-tuning, the more capable must be the fine-tuner. Therefore, pursuing evidence of cosmic fine-tuning for the specific benefit of humanity holds profound personal and philosophical significance.
If the observed fine-tuned designs prove to be of little or no consequence, then one could surmise that no intentionality is implied. On the other hand, if the observed fine-tuning is multifaceted and each facet is crucial for making human existence possible, then the fine-tuning source must be more than a mindless, impersonal force or process. The more numerous, specific, and purposeful the fine-tuned requirements, the more these required features reveal about the characteristics and identity of the fine-tuner.
Is Cosmic Fine-Tuning Real?
Not everyone agrees, however, that cosmic fine-tuning is real. Many allege the design is mere anthropomorphism or anthropocentrism. They contend that the observed cosmic fine-tuning is akin to a puddle noting that the hole in which it finds itself is perfectly fit for it. So, the puddle concludes that someone must have precisely manufactured the hole specifically for it.
This puddle argument against cosmic fine-tuning and the implied cosmic fine-tuner dates back at least 50 years to Douglas Adams but has become especially popular in the twenty-first century. I encountered it from one of the anonymous peer reviewers of my recently published paper, “Black Holes as Evidence of God’s Care.” (Open access to the paper is here. Open access to the peer reviewer’s critique is here.) In that paper (and in my book The Creator and the Cosmos2), I cite rebuttals to the puddle argument published by philosophers William Lane Craig3 and Richard Swinburne.4
Problems with “Puddle Thinking”
A few weeks ago, Australian astronomers Geraint Lewis and Luke Barnes published what, in my opinion, is the most eloquent and lay-accessible rebuttal to the puddle argument.5 They begin by giving the puddle the name Doug. Doug the puddle observes an exact match between his shape and the shape of the hole in which he dwells. Doug concludes that Someone must have designed the hole just for him. What Doug fails to realize is that given the fluidity of the water, the solidity of the hole, and the force of gravity, he will always take on the identical shape of his hole. Lewis and Barnes point out the obvious: any hole will do for a puddle.
The puddle analogy for humanity’s existence in the universe is fatally flawed. The two astronomers explain that not every conceivable universe will do for physical life. Physical life is not like a fluid. It will not and cannot adjust to any universe. The fine-tuning that astronomers observe indicates that even very slight alterations to the universe’s characteristics would rule out the possible existence of physical life. For human life, and especially for global human civilization, the constraints on the universe’s characteristics are exponentially more fine-tuned.
Figure: Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park
Image credit:Hugh Ross
Characteristics of the Fine-Tuner
Lewis and Barnes conclude that the fallacies in the puddle argument imply that the cosmic fine-tuning that astronomers observe cannot be dismissed as unworthy of our attention. Such features are of utmost importance. Lewis and Barnes suggest the fine-tuner could be a divine mind or a programmer desiring to simulate an interesting universe.
I see an opportunity to proceed further. The degree of fine-tuning will inform us on how intelligent, knowledgable, and powerful is the divine mind or transcendent programmer. Looking beyond the universe as a whole and the laws of physics to explore the fine-tuning of our supercluster of galaxies, our galaxy cluster, our galaxy group, our galactic neighborhood, our star, our planetary system, our moon, and our planet will reveal the extent of the fine-tuning and whether or not the fine-tuning is specific to our species on Earth. These factors have the potential to determine a lower limit to the divine mind’s care and love for our species.
Deepening our exploration of the degree and extent of cosmic fine-tuning likely will reveal multiple purposes for the fine-tuning. When I wrote Why the Universe Is the Way It Is in 2008, I posited 11 distinct purposes for why the divine mind manufactured the universe in the manner that he did. Today, we can identify several more. These distinct purposes tell us much about the characteristics, attributes, and plans of the divine mind. I am particularly impressed that the case for cosmic fine-tuning and a personal, all-powerful, all-loving divine mind is powerfully manifested in a purposeful context.That context is that the features and histories of the universe, the Laniakea Supercluster, the Virgo Cluster, the Local Group, the Local Bubble, the Local Fluff, the Sun, the solar system, the Moon, and Earth must be fine-tuned for billions of humans to possess the opportunity to be eternally redeemed within just thousands of years. Given the fine-tuning evidence, it seems inescapable that the divine mind must be the Creator God of the Bible.
Reasons to Believe emerged from my passion to research, develop, and proclaim the most powerful new reasons to believe in Christ as Creator, Lord, and Savior and to use those new reasons to reach people for Christ. I also am eager to equip Christians to engage, rather than withdraw from or attack, educated non-Christians. One of the approaches I’ve developed, with the help of my RTB colleagues, is a biblical creation model that is testable, falsifiable, and predictive.
I enjoy constructively integrating all 66 books of the Bible with all the science disciplines as a way to discover and apply deeper truths. 1 Peter 3:15–16 sets my ministry goal, "Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect, keeping a clear conscience."
Hugh Ross launched his career at age seven when he went to the library to find out why stars are hot. Physics and astronomy captured his curiosity and never let go. At age seventeen he became the youngest person ever to serve as director of observations for Vancouver's Royal Astronomical Society. With the help of a provincial scholarship and a National Research Council (NRC) of Canada fellowship, he completed his undergraduate degree in physics (University of British Columbia) and graduate degrees in astronomy (University of Toronto). The NRC also sent him to the United States for postdoctoral studies. At Caltech he researched quasi-stellar objects, or "quasars," some of the most distant and ancient objects in the universe.
Not all of Hugh's discoveries involved astrophysics. Prompted by curiosity, he studied the world’s religions and "holy books" and found only one book that proved scientifically and historically accurate: the Bible. Hugh started at religious "ground zero" and through scientific and historical reality-testing became convinced that the Bible is truly the Word of God! When he went on to describe for others his journey to faith in Jesus Christ, he was surprised to discover how many people believed or disbelieved without checking the evidence.
Hugh's unshakable confidence that God's revelations in Scripture and nature do not, will not, and cannot contradict became his unique message. Wholeheartedly encouraged by family and friends, communicating that message as broadly and clearly as possible became his mission. Thus, in 1986, he founded science-faith think tank Reasons to Believe (RTB). He and his colleagues at RTB keep tabs on the frontiers of research to share with scientists and nonscientists alike the thrilling news of what's being discovered and how it connects with biblical theology. In this realm, he has written many books, including: The Fingerprint of God, The Creator and the Cosmos, Beyond the Cosmos, A Matter of Days, Creation as Science, Why the Universe Is the Way It Is, and More Than a Theory.
Between writing books and articles, recording podcasts, and taking interviews, Hugh travels the world challenging students and faculty, churches and professional groups, to consider what they believe and why. He presents a persuasive case for Christianity without applying pressure. Because he treats people's questions and comments with respect, he is in great demand as a speaker and as a talk-radio and television guest.
Having grown up amid the splendor of Canada's mountains, wildlife, and waterways, Hugh loves the outdoors. Hiking, trail running, and photography are among his favorite recreational pursuits - in addition to stargazing. Hugh lives in Southern California with his wife, Kathy, and two sons.